Maternal Nutrition and Breastfeeding

Your Nutrition and Breastfeeding

A mother’s diet while breastfeeding

Women who are breastfeeding or
pumping milk to feed their babies often ask, “Do I need to be on a special diet?” In
most cases, the answer is no. Women who are breastfeeding should eat a well-balanced
diet and drink to thirst. You may be eager to lose any extra pounds gained during
pregnancy. But strict weight-loss programs are not advised, especially during the first
few months of breastfeeding. There are no special diets a breastfeeding mother must eat.
But these suggestions may help you focus on your eating patterns while

Enough fluids

Drink enough liquids. You may find
you are thirsty during the first few days after delivery. This is when your body loses
the extra fluid it gained during pregnancy. After that, your body will develop the
feeling of thirst based on your needs. But most mothers do notice they are more thirsty
when breastfeeding. Drink plenty of liquids, such as water, to quench your thirst. Limit
sweetened drinks and those with caffeine. You don’t need to force fluids beyond your
thirst. But it’s a good idea to drink something whenever you feel thirsty. It can be
helpful to put a glass of water near your favorite breastfeeding spot.


Eat a variety of healthy foods. The
best guide as to how much to eat should be your own appetite. In general, mothers are
hungrier during the first few months of breastfeeding. Don’t ignore feelings of hunger
when making milk for your baby. But be sure you are eating a variety of healthy foods.
This includes protein-rich foods, and vegetables and fruits. Grab a one-handed snack to
eat while breastfeeding. Or keep wrapped snacks near your favorite breastfeeding

Enough calories

Eat many different foods to get the
calories, vitamins, and minerals you need to stay healthy. It’s advised to have at least
2,000 calories per day, with an increase of 500 calories above your daily nonpregnancy
calorie intake. (An extra 500 calories equals a peanut butter sandwich and a glass of
milk.) Foods from these food groups offer the most nutritional value:

  • Meats

  • Beans

  • Vegetables (especially leafy green vegetables)

  • Fruit (not fruit drinks)

  • Breads, cereals, and grains

  • Milk, cheese, and eggs

Other diet considerations while breastfeeding

Spicy or gassy foods

Spicy or gas-producing foods are
common in many cultures. And these kinds of foods don’t bother most babies. A few
babies will get gas or seem uncomfortable when their mothers eat certain foods.
But no certain foods create problems for all babies. Unless you notice that your baby
reacts within 6 hours every time you eat a certain food, you don’t need to stay away
from any particular foods.

Vegetarian and vegan diets

Vegetarian, or mostly
vegetarian, diets have been a key part of many cultures for centuries. A vegetarian
mother’s breastmilk is often just as nutritionally appropriate as that of other
mothers. But some women on vegan diets may not get enough vitamin B12. They often
need supplements of vitamin B12 or other vitamins and minerals so their breastmilk
will have the right amount.

If you have any questions about
how your diet is affecting your breastmilk, get help. Contact your healthcare
provider, a certified lactation consultant (IBCLC), or a dietitian who specializes in
perinatal nutrition.

Coffee, tea, or sodas

You may have caffeinated drinks.
But caffeine may make your baby jittery or grouchy. It can also make your baby have
trouble sleeping. This is even more likely if you have too many caffeinated drinks,
or drink too much very quickly. Have mainly caffeine-free drinks when breastfeeding.
If you enjoy caffeinated drinks, limit your intake to about 2, 8-ounce servings per


It’s best to limit alcohol when
breastfeeding or pumping for milk. Alcohol can actually decrease your milk supply and
change the taste of your milk for a while. Pumping milk after drinking alcohol and
then discarding it (called pumping and dumping) does not make the alcohol leave your
milk faster. As your blood alcohol level falls over time, the alcohol level in your
breastmilk will also decrease. Breastmilk contains alcohol as long as alcohol is in
your blood.

Smoking or tobacco use

Tobacco use often affects a
woman’s appetite and how many foods taste. It’s best to not use tobacco when
breastfeeding or pumping. The benefits of your milk outweigh the risks of limited
tobacco use. But it’s important to know that nicotine and its byproducts pass into
milk. Tobacco use may cause a baby to have a more rapid heartbeat, be restless,
jittery, or have vomiting or diarrhea. Babies should not be exposed to secondhand
smoke. Secondhand smoke increases the risk for many illnesses as well as sudden
infant death syndrome (SIDS). 

Smoking also has been known to
increase a baby’s reaction to caffeine. If you are a smoker, be very careful about
your caffeine intake. 

In addition to its possible
effects on the baby, tobacco use can interfere with milk let-down (milk ejection
reflex). And it may reduce the amount of milk you make. If you can’t stop using
tobacco products, think about using a low-nicotine variety. And smoke right after
breastfeeding. The amount of nicotine in your milk decreases over 2 to 3 hours.

Talk with your healthcare
provider if you want to use nicotine gum or patches. And don’t combine the gum or
patch with smoking while you are breastfeeding.

Health conditions affecting a mother’s

In some cases a mother’s health
condition may have a direct or indirect effect on milk production. For example, some
women may not get enough vitamin B12 because of a health condition. They often need
supplements of vitamin B12 or other vitamins and minerals so their breastmilk will have
the right amount. This includes women who:

  • Have had gastric bypass surgery
  • Have a condition called pernicious anemia
  • Have certain gastrointestinal disorders

Talk with your healthcare provider
if you are concerned that your health condition may affect breastfeeding.

Get help if you ever have any
questions about nutrition or healthy dieting when breastfeeding. Contact your healthcare
provider, a certified lactation consultant (IBCLC), or a dietitian who specializes in
perinatal nutrition.