Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It is a long-ter, (chronic),
degenerative joint disease that affects mostly middle-aged and older adults.
Osteoarthritis causes the breakdown of joint cartilage. It can occur in any joint. But
it most often affects the hands, knees, hips, or spine.

Osteoarthritis can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary osteoarthritis has no known cause. Secondary osteoarthritis is caused by another disease, infection, injury, or deformity. Osteoarthritis starts with the breakdown of cartilage in the joint. As the cartilage wears down, the bone ends may thicken and form bony growths (spurs). Bone spurs interfere with joint movement. Bits of bone and cartilage may float in the joint space. Fluid-filled cysts may form in the bone and limit joint movement.

The risk factors of osteoarthritis include:

  • Heredity. Slight joint defects or double-jointedness (laxity) and genetic defects may contribute to osteoarthritis.
  • Extra
    weight.
     Being overweight or obese can put stress on such joints as the knees
    over time.
  • Injury or overuse. Severe injury to a joint, such as the knee, can lead to osteoarthritis. Injury may also result from overuse or misuse over time.

The most common symptom of osteoarthritis is pain after overuse or inactivity of a joint. Symptoms usually develop slowly over years. Symptoms can occur a bit differently in each person, and may include:

  • Joint pain
  • Joint stiffness, especially after sleep or inactivity
  • Less movement in the joint over time
  • A grinding feeling of the joint when moved, as the cartilage wears away (in more advanced stages)

The symptoms of osteoarthritis can look like other health conditions. Make sure to see your healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

The
process starts with a health history and a physical exam. You may also have X-rays. This
test uses a small amount of radiation to create images of bone and other body
tissues.

Treatment will depend on your symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on
how severe the condition is. The goal of treatment is to ease joint pain and stiffness,
and improve joint movement. Treatment may include:

  • Exercise. Regular exercise, including stretching and strengthening, may help
    ease pain and other symptoms.
  • Heat
    treatment.
     Treating the affected joint with heat may help ease pain.
  • Physical and
    occupational therapy.
     These types of therapy may help to ease joint pain,
    improve joint flexibility, and reduce joint strain. You may use splints and other
    assistive devices.  
  • Weight
    maintenance.
     Keeping a healthy weight or losing weight if needed may help to
    prevent or ease symptoms.
  • Medicines. These may include pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medicines. Either may be taken by mouth as a pill, or rubbed on the skin as a cream.
  • Injections of thick liquids into the joints. These liquids mimic normal joint fluid.
  • Joint
    surgery.
     You may need surgery to repair or replace a severely damaged
    joint.

Talk with your healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and possible side effects of all medicines.

Because osteoarthritis causes joints to degenerate over time, it can cause disability.
It can cause pain and movement problems that make you less able to do normal daily
activities and tasks.

Although there is no cure for osteoarthritis, it is important to help keep joints
functioning by easing pain and inflammation. Work on a treatment plan with your
healthcare provider that includes medicine and therapy. Work on lifestyle changes that
can improve your quality of life. Lifestyle changes include:

  • Losing
    weight.
     Extra weight puts more stress on weight-bearing joints, such as the
    hips and knees.
  • Exercising. Some exercises may help ease joint pain and stiffness. These
    include swimming, walking, low-impact aerobic exercise, and range-of-motion
    exercises. Stretching exercises may also help keep the joints flexible.
  • Balancing
    activity and rest.
     To reduce stress on your joints, alternate between
    activity and rest. This can help protect your joints and ease your symptoms.
  • Using assistive devices. Canes, crutches, and walkers can help to keep stress off certain joints and improve balance.
  • Using
    adaptive equipment.
     Reachers and grabbers allow you to extend your reach and
    reduce straining. Dressing aids help people get dressed more easily.
  • Managing use of medicines. Long-term use of some anti-inflammatory medicines can lead to stomach bleeding. Work with your healthcare provider to develop a plan to reduce this risk.

If your symptoms get worse or you have new symptoms, let your healthcare provider know.

  • Osteoarthritis is a chronic joint disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and older adults.
  • It starts with the breakdown of joint cartilage.
  • Risk factors include heredity, obesity, injury, and overuse.
  • Common symptoms include pain, stiffness, and limited movement of joints.
  • The goals of treatment are to reduce joint pain and stiffness, and improve joint movement.
  • Treatment may include medicines, exercise, heat, and joint injections.
  • Surgery may be needed to repair or replace a severely damaged joint.

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your healthcare provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your healthcare provider if you have questions.