Seasonal Affective Disorder or SAD

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression. It happens during certain seasons of the year, most often fall or winter. It is thought that shorter days and less daylight may trigger a chemical change in the brain leading to symptoms of depression. Light therapy and antidepressants can help treat SAD. 

SAD often starts during adulthood. The risk of SAD increases with
age. It’s rare in people under age 20. Women are affected more often than men.

Less sunlight and shorter days are
thought to be linked to a chemical change in the brain. They may be part of the cause of

Melatonin, a sleep-related hormone,
also has been linked to SAD. The body naturally makes more melatonin when it’s dark. So
when the days are shorter and darker, more melatonin is made.

There are 2 types of SAD:

  1. Fall-onset. This is also called
    winter depression. Symptoms of depression begin in the late fall to early winter
    months. They ease during the summer months.
  2. Spring-onset. This is also called
    summer depression. Symptoms of depression begin in late spring to early summer. This
    type is much less common.

These are the most common symptoms
of SAD:

  • Increased sleep and daytime drowsiness
  • Loss of interest and pleasure in activities formerly enjoyed
  • Social withdrawal and increased sensitivity to rejection
  • Grouchiness and anxiety
  • Feelings of guilt and hopelessness
  • Extreme tiredness (fatigue)
  • Decreased sex drive
  • Decreased ability to focus
  • Trouble thinking clearly
  • Increased appetite, especially for sweets and carbohydrates
  • Weight gain
  • Physical problems, such as headaches

Symptoms tend to come back and then improve at about the same times every year.

The symptoms of SAD may seem like
other mental health conditions. Always see a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.

Depression often happens with other
conditions such as heart disease or cancer. It may also happen with other mood disorders
such as substance abuse or anxiety. For these reasons, early diagnosis and treatment is
key to recovery.

A diagnosis of SAD may be made
after a careful mental health exam and health history done by a psychiatrist or other
mental health provider.

The treatments for winter
depression and summer depression often differ. They may include any of these:

  • Exposure to sunlight. Spending time
    outside or near a window can help ease symptoms.
  • Light therapy. If increasing sunlight
    is not possible, exposure to a special light for a certain amount of time each day
    may help.
  • Psychotherapy. Cognitive-behavioral
    or interpersonal therapy helps change the distorted views you may have of yourself
    and the environment around you. It can help you improve interpersonal relationship
    skills. And it can help you identify things that cause you stress and learn how to
    manage them.
  • Antidepressants. These prescription medicines can help correct the chemical imbalance that may lead to SAD.

There are also things you can do
for yourself to help ease symptoms:

  • Get help. If you think you may be depressed, see a healthcare provider as soon as possible.
  • Set realistic goals in light of the depression. Don’t take on too much. Break large tasks into small ones, set priorities, and do what you can as you can.
  • Try to be with other people and
    confide in someone. It is often better than being alone and secretive.
  • Do things that make you feel better. Going to a movie, gardening, or taking part in religious, social, or other activities may help. Doing something nice for someone else can also help you feel better.
  • Get regular exercise.
  • Expect your mood to get better slowly, not right away. Feeling better takes time.
  • Eat healthy, well-balanced meals.
  • Stay away from alcohol and drugs. These can make depression worse.
  • Delay big decisions until the
    depression has lifted. Don’t make a big change right away, such as getting a new
    jobs, or getting married or divorced. Talk it over first with others who know you
    well. They will likely have a more objective view of your situation.
  • People don’t often snap out of a
    depression. But they can feel a little better day by day.
  • Try to be patient and focus on the
    positives. This may help replace the negative thinking that is part of the
    depression. The negative thoughts will go away as your depression responds to
  • Let your family and friends help you.
  • SAD is a type of depression that
    happens during a certain season of the year, most often fall and winter.
  • There is no clear cause of SAD. But
    less sunlight and shorter days may be part of the cause. Melatonin, a sleep-related
    hormone, also may be linked to SAD.
  • Symptoms can include increased sleep
    and daytime drowsiness, social withdrawal, grouchiness, and decreased sex drive.
  • SAD may be diagnosed after a mental
    health exam and health history done by a psychiatrist or other mental health
  • Depression is most often treated with light therapy, therapy, and in some cases antidepressants.

Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:

  • Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
  • Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
  • Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you.
  • At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you.
  • Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
  • Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
  • Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
  • Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
  • If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
  • Know how you can contact your provider
    if you have questions.